HANDBOOK OF GREEK & LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY by Sir E M Thompson. 3rd edition, published 1906. Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co Ltd, London.

CHAPTER XII. Greek Palaeography (continued).

Miniscule Writing of the Middle Ages.

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Greek Minuscule MSS. of the middle ages have been divided into classes, as a convenient method of marking periods in a style of writing which, being used for the language of a limited area, and being subject to no exterior influence, underwent, like all isolated branches of writing, only a gradual change. These classes are :—
(1) codices vetustissimi, the most ancient MSS. of the ninth Century and to the middle of the tenth century ;
(2) codices vetusti, those which range from the middle of the tenth Century to the middle of the thirteenth Century ;
(3) codices recentiores, from the middle of the thirteenth Century to the middle of the fîfteenth Century ;
(4) codices novelli, all MSS. of later date.

There are still some thousand dated Greek MSS. in existence, in the different libraries of Europe, which were written before the year 1500; a list is given by Gardthausen, Griech. Palaeogr., pp. 344, sqq. Of these almost all are written in minuscules. More than three hundred facsimiles, nearly all produced by photographic methods, and dating from the year 800 to 1593, have been published. Of the ninth Century there are not a dozen dated MSS. extant ; nine are represented in facsimile. Of the tenth Century there are nearly fifty ; and of these there are nearly forty facsimiles. Of the eleventh Century, the number rises to nearly one hundred, and more than sixty are given in facsimile. It is curious that dated MSS. in the twelfth century are comparatively few—about seventy ; twenty-five of which have been represented in facsimile. In the later centuries, of course, they become rnore numerous.

It has already been explained that the minuscule hand, which almost suddenly makes its appearance as a literary hand in the ninth century, was nothing more than the cursive writing of the day written with care. The trained scribes made the best use of the smooth vellum to exhibit in their work that contrast of fine and heavy strokes which has always been held to impart a beauty to handwriting. Under this careful treatment the sloping tendency of a current hand was resisted, and the writing in its new set forrn became upright.

There are, however, a few MSS. in existence which seem to prove that a calligraphic style, or reform, of the cursive hand, for literary purposes, was in partial use before the period of the literary minuscule of the ninth century.

Theological Works
Theological Works.—8th or 9th century.
τεμνομενης· η τηι ακτιστω [και] συναιδιωι και ὁ | μοουσιωι τριαδι μεταγενεστερας τινοσ η | κτισης ἢ ετεροουσιου φυσεω;επεισαγιμε | νυς [και] τον περι της ενανθρωτησεως του κυριου | λογον αδιαστροφον σωζομεν· [και] τιμοθεος | δε ὁ ελουρος ὁ τῆς αληθειας ἐχθρος— .

The writing of these MSS. slopes after the manner of a current hand, and yet the letters are formed with a uniform precision which stamps it as a hand which had been developed in some school of writing, which, however, to judge from the paucity of existing specimens, probably had no very wide influence. A facsimile from a MS. of this character, and ascribed to the 8th century, is given by Gardthausen, Beiträge zur Griech. Palaeographie, 1877 ; and another from a liturgical roll at Mount Sinai, of the 9th century, accompanies a paper by the same writer, Différences Provinciales de la Minuscule Grecque, in Mélanges Graux, 1884. A third MS., containing a collection of theological works, from which the facsimile above is taken, is in the Vatican Library, and is probably of the end of the 8th or beginning of the 9th century (Pal. Soc. ii. pl. 126).

Many of the forms of letters in this writing which are distinctly cursive, such as a looped alpha, the inverted epsilon, the h-shaped eta, and the n-shaped nu, disappear from, or are modified in, the more settled literary minuscule hand.

But before examining in detail the progress of this literary hand through the different periods or classes which have been enumerated, its general course of development may be traced in a few words.

In the cursive writing there was never an entire suppression of the original capital forms. For example, the large Β, Δ, Η, Κ, Ν, and others are found side by side with the more cursive forms of the same letters. It was, therefore, only to be expected that, however rigorously such capital forms might be excluded from the set literary minuscule hand when it was written in its first stage of exactness, they would by degrees creep in and show themselves side by side with their purely minuscule equivalents in literary works, just as they did in the ordinary cursive writings of the period. This, in fact, happened ; and the presence of capital forms in lesser or greater numbers affords some criterion of the age of a MS.

Again, the degeneration of writing from the earliest models of the ninth and tenth centuries to the hurried styles of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is apparent enough if we turn over a consecutive series of MSS. or facsimiles. But this degeneration only became rapid, and, so to say, acquired its full impetus, in the later centuries. And certain classes, such as liturgical MSS., which custom bad retained for special uses, were less tolerant of change, and served in some measure to retard the disuse of the formal hands of older times. In the earlier centuries breathings and accents are applied in a style in keeping witli the exact writing of the text; the breathings are rectangular and the accents are short. Afterwards, the former being more rapidly written become curved ; and the latter are dashed on with a bolder stroke. Their last stage is when they even blend with the letters which they mark.

The writing of the period of the codices vetustissimi, of the ninth Century and to the middle of the tenth Century, as far as is shown by surviving examples, is very pure and exact. The letters are most symmetrically formed ; they are compact and upright, and have even a tendency to lean back to the left. Breathings are rectangular, in keeping with the careful and deliberate formation of the letters. In a word, the style being practically a new one for literary purposes, the scribes wrote it in their best form and kept strictly to the approved pattern.

The earliest dated example of this class is the copy of the Gospels belonging to Bishop Uspensky, written in the year 835. A facsimile, but not very satisfactory, appears in Gardthausen's Beiträge and in Wattenbach and von Velsen's Exempla Codicum Graecorum, tab. 1. Next comes the Oxford Euclid (D'Orville MS.), which belonged to Arethas, Archbishop of Cæsarea, and was written in 888.

The breadth of the letters will be noticed, as well as a certain squareness in the general character and the slight inclination to the left. Exact finish is best seen in such letters as α and δ, the final stroke of the former, when unconnected, being brought up to the top of the line, and the down-stroke of the latter being drawn right down to the base. The set forms into which the cursive β, η, and κ are cast should also be noted. The ornamental effect of the writing is added to by the slight turn or hook in which down-strokes terminate. Certain of these characteristics remain in the minuscule writing of succeeding centuries : others wear off and are lost as time advances.

Euclid.—A.D. 888.
μεν εισι τα ΛΞΓ ΡΦΖ τρόγωνα. απεναντιον δε | τα ΟΜΝ ΣΤΥ ὥστε κ[αι] τα στερεα παραλληλεπίπεδα | τα έπο τῶν ειρημένων πρισμάτων άναγραφομε | να ϊσοϋψν τυγχανοντα. προς άλληλά εισιν ὡς αϊ | βάσεις κ[αι] τα ημιση· αρα εσται ὡς ἡ ΛΞΓ βασις προς | την ΡΦΖ βασιν. οὕτω τα ειρημένα πρίσματα προς | αλληλα ὅπερ ἔδει δειξαι :

Our next facsimile, from a MS. at Paris (Omont, Facsimilés, pl. 1), illustrates the same class of writing, of rather larger type and more laterally compressed, the uprightness of the character being thus more evident.

Lives of Saints
Lives of Saints.—A.D. 890.
(—πιστάμην ὁποῖος ἦν· [καὶ] τού | των λεγομενων. έσύρισεν κα | τ αυτῆς ὁ δράκων παροξυν | θεὶς σφόδρα· ἡ δὲ ἁγία δού | λη τοῦ θ[εο]ῦ τὸν στ[αυ]ρον ἐποίησεν | τῶ μετόπω [καὶ] ἐν παντὶ τῶ σώ—

A third specimen is taken from a very beautiful MS. of St. Clement of Alexandria (Omont, Facsimilés, pl. 2). written for Archbishop Arethas, above mentioned, in the year 914.

St Clement of Alexandria
St. Clement of Alexandria.—A.D. 914.
μενον ἐθνῶν· ἐπανελθόντα εἰς αἴγυπτον ἐπαγαγ[έσθαι τεχνι] | τας ῑκανοὺς· τὸν οὗν ὄσιριν, τὸν προπάτορα [τὸν αὐτοῦ] | δε̃δαλθῆναι ἐκέλευσεν αὐτὸς πολυτελῶ . κ[ατασκευά] | ζει δὲ αὐτὸν βρύαξις ὁ δημιουργός· οὐχ ὁ ἀθην[αῖος· ἄλλος] | δε τἰς ὁμώνυμος, ἐκείνωι τῶι βρυάξιδι·ὂς, ὕλη[ι]

And lastly of this period we give a few lines from a MS. of Basil's commentary on Isaiah, of the year 942 (Omont, Facsim., pl. 4), written in a rather larger character, but showing very little advance on the earlier examples. Indeed, the writing of this first division of the minuscule literary hand is subject to so little change in its course, that it is extremely difficult to place the undated MSS. in their proper order of time.

St Basil
St. Basil.—A.D. 942.
αίσθησιν ἤξουσιν· ὅτι οἱ με[ν κατὰ τὰ ἔθνη] | περιπατοῦντες· ἐν σάλω εἰ[σὶ διὰ τὴν ἑαυ] | τῶν κακἰαν· οἱ δὲ τὸν νοῦν [ἑαυτῶν κεκα] | θαρμένον ἔχοντας· ὃς ὀνομά [ζεται σιων· ἐπει] | δὴ ἐκεῖθέν ἐστι τὸ σκοπευ[τήριον]


We now pass on to the codices vetusti, from the middle of the tenth century to the middle of the thirteenth century. But before surveying the more formal hands of this period, a few words should be said regarding a style of writing which is noteworthy, as certain important MSS. of classical literature, whose date it is of interest to determine, are written in it.

It is not to be supposed that MSS. of the earlier period of minuscule writing which has been discussed, were only written by the most accomplished scribes and in the best style. The working copies of students and scholars were no doubt then as rough and cursive in comparison with the facsimiles given above as a modern scholar's own composition is in comparison with a printed text ; and, except for choice copies, written for some special purpose, such, for example, as the Bodleian Plato of 895 (Pal. Soc. i. pl. 81 ; Exempla, tab. 3), or the Harley Lucian of the British Museum, of the beginning of the tenth Century (Pal. Anc. MSS. i. pl. 18; Pal. Soc. ii. pl. 27), the extreme calligraphic style was not called for in books which were intended for private use. Hence a more fluent character of writing appears to have been practised as a book-hand for copies which would serve ordinary purposes : a good working hand, perfectly clear and well formed, more set and formal than a common cursive hand would be, but yet not finished off with precise care. In the tenth and eleventh centuries then, we find MSS. written in thi s style, and no doubt still earlier examples existed. We give facsimiles from two MSS., separated by an interval of nearly one hundred years : a Chrysostom of 954 and a St. Ephraem of 1049 (Omont, Facsim., pls. 5, 21).

Chrysostom.—A.D. 954.
και ὁ μὲν ἐν ερημία τῶν | προστησωμένων ἦν· οὗτος | δὲ εἶχεν τοὺς ἐπιμελουμένους, | οἳ καὶ βαστάζοντες αὐτὸν | ἔφερον· καὶ τούτω μἐν φησιν

St Ephraem
St. Ephraem.—A.D. 1049.
τοῦ κυρίου σου· μήποτε ὁ τὰ [ζιζάνια συμ] | μίζη τι τῶν ἰδίων· ἔθος γàp α[ὐτῶ ἐστι διὰ τοῦ] | ἀβαθοῦ τὸ κακὸν κατβεργάζεσθαι· [παρὰ κυρίου ζη] | τήσωμεν χάριν. ἵνα ἡμῖν δω[ρήσηται γνῶσιν] | [καὶ] σύνεσιν τοῦ νήφειν ἐv πᾶσι· [κάμινος δο] | κιμάζει ἀργύριον κ[aὶ] χρυσίον.

In the older specimen the writing is rather stiffer and not quite so fluent as in the other; and both are good characteristic specimens of their respective centuries. The St. Ephraem is the work of a very experienced penman, who must have written with great ease and rapidity, without in the least degenerating in his style.

The four following facsimiles will give an idea of the formal style of writing of the eleventh, twelfth, and early thirteenth centuries; and from them it will be seen how very gradual was the change in the actual forms of the letters.

In the first, from a Chrysostom of 1003 (Omont, Facsim., pl. 11), the exact regularity of the tenth century is still remembered, but the writing is hardly so graceful as in the earlier examples.

Chrysostom.—A.D. 1003.
—ριστίαν ἀντι θυσίας. ἤ | νεγκε τῶ θ[ε]ω λέγων· εἴ | η τὸ ὄνομα κ[υριο]υ εὐλογη | μένον· νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ· καὶ εἰς | τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνω[ν]

The next is half a century later, from Saints' Lives of the year 1055-6 (Omont, Facsim., pl. 23). Here there is a little more tendency to roundness and rather less compactness.

Lives of Saints
Lives of Saints.—A.D. 1055-6.
αὐτοῦ δισκλητιανοῦ | τὰ κατὰ ζῆλον | τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀγωνί | σματα· ὃς τῆι ἀδο | κήτω φήμη κατα

The third, a good characteristic specimen, from sermons of St. Theodore Studites, of 1136 (Omont, Facsim., pi. 47), is more freely written ; strokes are lengthened, marks of contraction and accents are more prominent, and breathings lose their old angular shape.

St Theodore
St. Theodore.—A.D. 1136.
καὶ ποτίζειν καὶ οἷον δια | κόπτειν καὶ τέμνειν καὶ | ἀποκαθαίρειν. ἵνα γέ | νησθε ἄμπελος εὐκλη | ματουσα, πολὺν φέ[ρουσα]

The fourth specimen is selected from a Lectionary of 1204 (Omont, Facsim., pl. 51), in which the old style of hand is maintained, but betrays its more recent date by its irregular formation and exaggerated strokes.

Lectionary.—A.D. 1204.
ἀποκριθεὸς δὲ ὁ πέ | τρος λέγει αὐτῶ | σὺ εἶ ὁ χ[ριστὸ]ς . καὶ ἐπετί | μυσεν αὐτοὺς ἵνα | μηδενὶ λέγωσιν πε—

The marks above the line, in addition to the accents, are to guide the intonation.

The two hundred years, from the middle of the thirteenth century to the middle of the fifteenth century, which are given to the codices recentiores, witness more rapid changes than have been seen in the previous periods. This was naturally to be expected with the wider diffusion of learning and the consequent multiplication of copies of books of all kinds.

We will first examine the writing of the thirteenth century, taking our first facsimile from a typical MS. of the latter half of the century, written in the ordinary formal style—a Chrysostom of 1273 (Omont, Facsim., pli. 60).

Chrysostom.—A.D. 1273.
—τομὴν, [καὶ] ταύτη διὰ τοῦ στ[αυ]ροῦ τ[ῆς] | κατάρας ἀπαλλάξας τῆς εττὶ | τῆ παραβάσει, οὐκ ἀφῆκε δια | πεσεῖν τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν· ὁταν | Οὖν λέγη διάκονον περίτομ[ης] | τοῦτο λέγη, ὅτι ελθὼν [καὶ] πάντα

Αs a characteristic οf the writing οf thisa period, the persistence of enlarged οr stilted letters strikes the eye. These forms are used sporadically in the preceding centuries, but not so commonly as to become a feature as they do now.

Next is given a specimen from a MS. of Theophylactus on the Gospels, of 1255 (Omont, Facsim., pl. 55), a MS. not of so formal a type as the last, and therefore bearing a more distinctive character of advance.

Theophylactus.—A.D. 1255.
θαύμ[α]τ[α]. οὔτε τὰ ἐπὶ τῶ τάφω μαρτυρούμενα— | τῶ ἰδίω πάθει τῆ φιλαργυρία ὑπονοθεύ[οuσι]— | ἀσεβέστερον φθέγξασθαι κ[αὶ] ἀνοητότ[ε]ρ[ον], ὅτι— | οὐ δοὰ τ[ὸν] φόβον ἀποκλεισθέντ[ες], κ[αὶ] μὴ τολ[μῶντες] — | πέθνησκον ὕστερον δι' αὐτὸν κηρύττοντ[ες] ὅ

And here we turn aside from the more beaten track to notice the small cursive hand of this period, which is found occasionally in that class of MSS. to which reference has already been made as students' books. The occurrence of a dated MS. written in this hand is of great assistance, for the freedom with which it is written rather influences the judgment to assign undated specimens to a later period than that to which they really belong. It may be observed that, though a good deal flourished, the innate character of the writing is a certain stiffness and, if we may use the term, a wiry aspect, which disappears in the later cursive hands. The MS. which supplies the facsimile is a commentary on Porphyry's Introduction to Aristotle, of 1223 (Omont, Facsim., pl. 52).

Porphyry.—A.D. 1223.
τούτ[ων], ἐκεῖ εἰσὶν, [καὶ] αἱ ὑπόλοιπ[οι]. ὅπ[ο]υ [δὲ] μία [ἐκλείπεται], | ἐκεὶ [καὶ] π[ᾶσ]αι ἐκλείπουσι. εἰρηκότ[ες] τὰς κοινωνι[ας] [χωρή] | σωμ[εν] [καὶ] ἐπὶ τὰς δ[ια]φο[ράς]. δευτ[έρα] [δὲ] δ[ια]φορὰ αὐτ[ων] [ὑπέρχεται,] ὁ τρόπο[ς] τ[ῆς] κατηγορί[ας] . αἱ μ[ὲν] γ[ὰρ] ἐν τῶ τί [ἐστιν] κατηγο[ρoῦντες] | ὥσπερ τὸ γέμος κ[αὶ] τὸ εἴδο[ς]· αἱ [δὲ] ἐν τῶ ὁποίον [τί ἐστιν] | ὥστερ ἡ δ[ια]φο[ρὰ], [καὶ] τὸ ἴδιον, κ[αὶ] τὸ συμβεβηκο[ς].

To compare with this, a few lines follow from a MS. written in the same style a hundred years later, the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, of 1321 (Omont, Facsim., pl. 78), the writing of which, it will be observed, is slacker.

Barlaam & Josaphat
Barlaam and Josaphat.—A.D. 1321.
φύσε[ως] ἡμ[ῶν] οὐδὲ ἐν τούτω τῶ μέρει ἀφῆ[κεω ἡμᾶς] | ἀνιάτρευτα νοσ[εῖνj. ἀλλ' ὡς πάνσοφος ἰα[τρὸ τ;[η] | ὀλισθῆρα ἡμ[ῶν] [καὶ] φιλαμαρτήμονι γνώμη, [συνέμιξε] | τὸ φάρμακον τ[ῆς] μετανοί[ας]. κηρύξας ταύ[την εἰς] | ἄφεσ[ιν]
ἀμαρτιῶν. μετὰ γὰρ τὸ λαβ[εῖν] —


Το illustrate the writing of the fourteenth Century, we first select a Psalter of the year 1304 (Omont, Facsim., pl. 75), just one hundred years later than the formally-written Lectionary of 1204, of which a facsimile is given above.

Psalter.—A.D. 1304.
Δίαμενεῖ εἰς τὸν [αἰῶνα ἐνώ] | πιον τοῦ θ[εο]ῦ : | Ἔλεος καὶ ἀλήθει [αν αὐτοῦ τίς] | ἐκζητήσει : | Ὅυτως ψαλῶ τῶ ὀ[νοματί σου] | εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνα[ς] :

The very conservative nature of the formal writing of liturgical books could not be better illustrated than by this large hand of the fourteenth Century, which reverts so distinct y to early models. But its artificial character is at once apparent when it is compared in detail with the more ancient writings of the tenth and eleventh centuries which it imitates.

Next follow two specimens of a more general character, in which the transition from the style of the middle ages towards that of the modern school of writing is very marked. The first is taken from a Manual of Jurisprudence by Constantine Harmenopoulos, of 1351 ; the second is from a MS. of Herodotus, of 1372 (Omont, Facsim., pls. 85, 96).

In both of these specimens there will be observed instances of the late practice of writing accents as if integral parts of the letters.

Constantine Hermenopoulos
Constantine Harmenopoulos.—A.D. 1351.
τίθεται, καλεῖσθαι παρὰ τοῦ δικαστ[οῦ] — | ἑκάστης κλήσεως, οὐκ ἔλαττον τριά[κοντα]— | διαστήματι περικλειομένης· [καὶ] ἐα[ν]— παραγένηται, ἢ ἐντολέα πέμψη, δί[δοσθαι]— | ἑτέρου ἐνιαυτοῦ προθεσμία· ἧς ἐν[τὸς]—

Herodotos.—A.D. 1372.
τὴν ἀγγελίην, ὅτι οὐδὲν ποιήσομ[εν]— | ὑμέων προσεδέετο· πρίν ὦν παρεῖ[ναι]— | τὴν ἀττικήν, ἡμέας καιρός ἐστι προβ[οηθῆσαι]— | βοιωτίην· οἱ μὲν, ταῦτα ὑποκριναμ [ἐνων] — I απαλλάσσοντο ἐς σπάρτην.


In the fifteenth century the varieties of handwriting become most numerous, and it is impossible to do more than select a few specimens to illustrate the period. ← Monsieur Omont's Fac-similés de Manuscrits Grecs des xve et xvie siècles, 1887, contains an interesting series of specimens of the writing of various Greek professional calligraphists of those centuries, who settled in Italy and Western Europe under stress of the Ottoman invasion and were employed as copyists by patrons of literature, or as correctors for the press. For the first half of the century two examples may suffice, the first from a Polybius of 1416 (Pal. Soc. i. pl. 134) ; and the other from a MS. of Simplicius upon the Physics of Aristotle, written by John Argyropoulos at Padua in 1441 (Omont, Facsim. xv. et xvi. s., pl. 24), in a style which recalls the cursive hand of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries represented above.

Polybius.—A.D. 1416.
—αν, φιλίνω μὲν πάντα δοχοῦσιν οἱ καρ | — καλῶς ἀνδρωδῶς. οἱ δὲ ῥωμαῖοι, | —[το]ύτων· καὶ μὲν οὖν τῶ λοιπῶ βίω τὴν τοι | —[ἐκ β]άλλοι· καὶ γὰρ φιλόφιλον δεῖ εἶναι τ[ὸν] | —[συμ]μισεῖν τοῖς φίλοις τοὺς ἐχθροὺς· καὶ | —τῆς ἱστορί[ας] ἧθος ἀναλαμβάνη τις, ἒπι.

The frequent dotting of the iota in this MS. is peculiar.

Simplicius.—A.D. 1441.
—σαί τε [καὶ] βασανίσαι τῶν φυσικῶν | τὰς στοιχειώδεις ἀρχὰς ἀν ευρίσκει | πρώτας. δεικνὺς ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων | εἰναι τὰς γενήσεις· ὧν κοινότατον, | τό, τε είδος, [καὶ] ἡ στέρησις. [καὶ] ἔτί, ἐκ | τοῦ τοῖς ἐναντίοις ὑποκειμένου. | [καὶ] δὴ [καὶ] π[ερ]ὶ τῆς ὕλης, ὅτι τὲ ἐστὶν | ἀποδείξας, [καὶ] ὅτι ὑποκείμενον τοῖς

Το illustrate the codices novelli of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, first a few lines are taken from a formally-written Menaeum, or offices for saints' days, of the year 1460 (Pal. Soc. i. pl. 233), the writing of which recalls the style of the thirteenth century.

Menaeum.—A.D. 1460.
εἰδώλων θρησκίας ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν χριστιάνῶν— | πρὸς σὲ κοινωνίαν οὐ καταδέχομαι. ὁ δε̏ τῶ— | μὴ δυνηθέντος δὲ τοῦ π[ατ]ρ[ὸ]ς ἀπὸ τῆς εἰς χ[ριστὸ]ν πίστε[ως]— | τῶ τῶ μνηστίρι καὶ ἐπάρχω εἰς τ[ὴν] κατὰ τοῦς κρατο[ῦντας]— | ὁ δε̏ τοῦ χιτῶνος γυμνώσας αὐτὴν καὶ νεύροις— | τῶν καταξάνας. [καὶ] τῶν τριχῶν ἐκκρεμάσας

The next example is from a carefully written copy of the Odyssey, the work of the calligraphist John Rhosos, of Crete, who was employed in Rome, Venice, Florence, and other cities of Italy. It is dated in 1479 (Pal. Soc. i. pl. 182).

Homer.—A.D. 1479.
Ὣς ἔφατ' οὐδ' ἀπίθησε περίφρων εὐρύκλεια· ἤνεγκεν δ' ἄρα πῦρ καὶ θήιον, αὐτὰρ ὀδυσσεὺς εὖ διεθείωσεν μέγαρον καὶ δῶμα καὶ αὐλ[ὴν]. γρῆυς δ' αὖτ' ἀπέβη διὰ δώματα κάλ' ἀδυσήος. ἀγγελέουσα γυναιξὶ καὶ ὀτρυνέουσα νέεσθαι· αἵ δ' ἴσαν ἐκ μεγάροιο δάος μετὰ χερσὶν ἔχουσαι.


Finally, to conclude this section of Greek Palæography, the following five facsimiles represent some of the many styles of the more or less cursive handwriting of the century between 1497 and 1593:—

i. Pausanias, written at Milan, in 1497, by Peter Hypsilas, of Ægina (Omont, op. cit., pl. 44), in a good and regular upright hand, compressed.

Pausanias.—A.D. 1497.
καταθέμ[εν]ος τάς τε βοῦς ταύτ[ας] [καὶ] ἀρχὴν τὴν ἐαυτοῦ. πεποίηκε δέ— | ἀντήνορος τὰ πρῶτα τῶν ἔδνων· ἑκατὸν βοῦς τῶν πενθερῷ— | τοὺς τότε χαίρειν μάλιστα ἀν[θρώττ]ους. ἐνέμοντο δὲ ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν αἱ το— | ὑποψαμμός τε γ[άρ] ἐστίν ὡς ἐπίπαν ἡ τῶν πυλίων χώρα· [καὶ] πόαν— | μαρτυρεῖ δὲ μοι [καὶ] ὅμηρος ἐν μνήμη νέστορος ἐπιλέγων ἀεὶ— | τοῦ λιμένος δὲ ἡ σφακτηρία νῆσος προβέβλητ[αι] καθάπερ

ii. Ptolemy's Almagest, written at Mantua, in 1518, by Michael Damascenos, of Crete (Omont, op. cit., pl. 36), in a compact hand, not unlike that of the last specimen, but a little more elaborate.

Ptolemy.—A.D. 1518.

καὶ παρὰ τὸν ἐπικυκλον, ἐγκεκλιμένους ἐπὶ πάντων— | πρὸς τὸ τοῦ δια μέσων ἐπίπεδον· κ[αὶ] τὸν ἐπίκυκλον πρὸς— | ὡς ἔφαμ[εν] δiὰ τοῦτο γινομένης ἀξιολόγου παραλλαγ[ῆς]— | παρόδον. ἢ τὰς ἀποδείξεις τῶν ἀνωμαλιῶν μέχρι γε— | [ὡς] ἐν τοῖς ἐφεξῆς στήσομ[εν]. ἕνεκ[εν] [δὲ] τοῦ διὰ τῶν κ[α]τ[ὰ] μίρο[ς] — | αὐτῶν ὅταν ὁ τε τοῦ διευκρινημένου μήκους, καὶ ὁ—

iii. The Manual of Jurisprudence by Constantine Harmenopoulos, written in Chios, in 1541, by Jacob Diassorinos, of Rhodes (Omont, op. cit., pl. 2-3), in the loose straggling hand characteristic of the period.

Constantine Harmenopoulos
Constantine Harmenopoulos.—A.D. 1541.

—θελον ἐν αὐτῆ γράψαι, καὶ ὕστερον ἐνθυμ[ηθῆ ταῦτα] | τότε γραφ[έτω] χαρτίον ἄλλο, διαλαμβάνον περὶ [ὧν ἐπεκάθετο] | ἐν τῆ διαθήκ[η] εἰπεῖν, καὶ λέγ[ε]τ[αι] τοῦτο κωδίκελλ[ος, ἤγουν μι] | κρὸν χαρτόπουλον, ἢ βιβλίδιον. ὡς τοῦ μὲν

iv. Ӕlian's Tactics, written at Paris, in 1564, by Angelus Vegecius, of Crete (Omont, op. cit., pl. 2), in quite a modern style of hand, but compact.

Ӕlian.—A.D. 1564.

τῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς ῥομβοειδέσι σχήμασι τ[ὴν] ἵππον συντα- | ξάντ[ων], οἱ μὲν οὕτως ἔταξαν ὥστε τοὺς ἱππέας κ[αὶ] στοιχ[εῖν] | κ[αὶ] ζυγεῖν. οἱ δὲ, στοιχεῖν μὲν, οὐκ ἔτι δὲ ζυγεῖν. οἱ δὲ, | ζυγεῖν μὲν, οὐ στοιχεῖν δὲ. ἑκάστη δὲ τάξις οὕτως ἔχει. | οἱ μὲν τοὺς ῥόμβους [καὶ] στοιχεῖν κ[αὶ] ζυγεῖν βουληθέντες, ἔτα | ξαν τὸν μέγιστ[ον] τὸν ἐν τῇ ἴγη ζυγὸν μέσ[ον] ἐξ ἀριθμοῦ

ν. The Syntagma Canonum of Matthew Blastares, written at Rome, in 1598, by John Hagiomauros, of Cyprus (Omont, op. cit., pl. 31), in a loose hand of modern type.

Blastares.—A.D. 1593.

—δάφει γράφειν ἀπείρηκεν· οὐ μήν ἀλλὰ καὶ — | διαγράφειν ἀνενδιάστως ἐπισκήπτει. [καὶ] έξαλ— | συμπατούμ[εν]ον τοῖς βαδίζουσιν, ἐξυβρίζοιτο— | ἡμῶν νίκης τρόπαιον· τὸ καὶ διανυίᾳ, αἰδοῖ— | —μ[εν]ον, καὶ λόγῳ διαφερόντως θαυμαζόμ[εν]ον κα—


Greek Writing in Western Europe.

Before closing the division of our work which relates to Greek Palæography, a few MSS. may be quoted which illustrate the course of Greek writing in Western Europe. We refer, however, only to tbose MSS. which are written in actual Greek letters or in imitative letters, not to those in which Greek words or texts are inscribed in ordinary Latin letters, of which there are not a few examples.

Codex Bezae

Two celebrated MSS. of the 6th Century containing bilingual texts have already been referred to See p. 154. as having been written in Western Europe. The " Codex Bezæ," of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, at Cambridge, and the " Codex Claromontanus," of the Epistles of St. Paul, at Paris, are both written in Greek and Latin in uncial letters. But in these MSS. the Greek text is in letters which are of the ordinary type of Greek uncials of the period. In a third example of a bilingual text, the Harley MS. 5792 (Cat. Anc. MSS. pt. i. pl. 13; Pal. Soc. ii. pl. 25), which contains a Græco-Latin Glossary, written probably in France in the 7th Century, the Greek writing betrays its western origin very palpably. Still more distinctly imitative is the Greek text in the " Codex Augiensis," of Trinity College, Cambridge, in which the Epistles of St. Paul were written in Latin minuscules and Greek bastard uncials, in the latter part of the 9th Century, at Reichenau in Bavaria (Pal. Soc. i. pl. 127) ; in a Græco-Latin MS. of some of the Psalms, in the Library of St. Nicholas of Cusa, of the same character, written early in the 10th Century (Pal. Soc. i. pl. 128) ; and in the " Codex Sangallensis " and " Codex Boenerianus " of Dresden, which once formed one MS. and contain the Gospels in Latinized Greek letters of the 10th century, with an interlinear Latin version (Pal. Soc. i. pl. 179).

Codex Claromontanus

A few instances survive of the employment of Greek letters in Latin signatures and subscriptions to documents of the sixth and seventh centuries from Ravenna and Naples (Marini, I Papiri Diplom., 90, 92, 121 ; Cod. Diplom. Cavensis, ii. no. 250 ; Pal. Soc. ii. 3) ; and the same practice appears to have been followed in France and Spain as late as the eleventh century. Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, (2nd series) tom. i. p. 443; Delisle, Mélanges de Paléographie, p. 95. But we may regard such a superfluous use of a foreign alphabet, at least in most instances, as a mere affectation of learning. In the ornamental pages of fanciful letters, also, which adorn early Anglo-Saxon and Franco-Saxon MSS., a Greek letter occasionally finds a place, serving, no doubt, to show off the erudition of the illuminator. ← Delisle, L'Evangéliaire de Saint-Vaast d'Arras.