Jerusalem, GATES OF JERUSALEM
Jerusalem, GATES OF
(See also wiki article Old_City_(Jerusalem)
JERUSALEM, GATES OF.
The following gates of Jerusalem are mentioned in the Bible:
1. Ephraim Gate, 2 K.14.13, 2 Ch.25.23, Neh.8.16, 12.39.
2. Corner Gate, 2 K. 14.13, 2 Ch.25.23, 26.29, Jer.31.38, Zec.14.10.
3. Gate between the two walls, 2 K.25.4, Jer.39.4, 52.7.
4. Gate of the Foundation, 2 Ch.23.5.
5. Horse Gate, 2 Ch.23.15, Neh.3.28, Jer.31.40.
6. Valley Gate, 2 Ch.26.9, Neh.2.13, 15, 3.13.
7. Fish Gate, 2 Ch.33.14, Neh.3.3, 12.39, Zeph.1.10.
8. Dung Gate, Neh.2.13, 3.13f, 12.31.
9. Fountain Gate, Neh.2.14, 3.15, 12.37.
10. Sheep Gate, Neh.3.1, 32, 12.39.
11. Old Gate, Neh.3.6, 12.39.
12. Water Gate, Neh.3.26, 8.1, 3, 16, 12.37.
13. Muster Gate, Neh.3.31 (AV 'gate Miphkad'; RV 'gate Hammiphkad').
14. Benjamin Gate, Jer.17.19 (so RSV) 20.2, 37.13, 38.7, Zec.14.10.
15. Pots-herd Gate, Jer.19.2 (AV 'east gate'; RV 'gate Harsith').
Other features of the walls of Jerusalem mentioned are:
1. Broad Wall, Neh.12.38.
2. Tower of Hananel (AV Hananeel), Neh.3.1, 12.39, Jer.31.38, Zec.14.10.
3. Tower of the Hundred (AV 'tower of Mean'; RV 'tower of Hammeah').
4. Tower of the Furnaces, Neh.3.11 (RSV ovens) 12.38.
It will be seen that many of these gates and other features of the walls figure mainly, if not exclusively, in the account of Nehemiah's rebuilding of the walls. The determination of the situation of all these gates is complex and difficult, and scholars who have examined the question on the ground of biblical and archaeological evidence are not agreed. The fullest examination of the question in recent years has been undertaken by H. Vincent, Jerusalem de I'Ancien Testament, 1954-1956, and J. Simons, Jerusalem in the Old Testament, 1952. In Map 13 the reconstruction of Vincent has been followed.
In addition certain gates of the Temple are named:
1. Gate Sur, 2 K.11.6.
2. Gate of the Guard, 2 K.11.19, Neh.12.39 (AV 'prison gate').
3. Gate of Shallecheth, 1 Ch.26.16.
4. East Gate, 2 Ch.31.14, Neh.3.29, Ezk.11.1.
5. New Gate, Jer.36.10.
6. Beautiful Gate, Ac.3.10.
[Article: Dictionary of the Bible, J.Hastings, 2nd Ed., T&T.Clark, 1963.]