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katapi HOME Acts 22:6 - Paul Tells of His Conversion  Ac.22.6-16- Ac.9.1-19, Ac.26.12-18 | KNSB Contents | notes
22 6 "As I made my journey and drew near to Damascus, about noon a great light from heaven suddenly shone about me. 22 7 And I fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to me, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?' 22 8 And I answered, 'Who are you, Lord?' And he said to me, 'I am Jesus of Nazareth whom you are persecuting.' 22 9 Now those who were with me saw the light but did not hear the voice of the one who was speaking to me. 22 10 And I said, 'What shall I do, Lord?' And the Lord said to me, 'Rise, and go into Damascus, and there you will be told all that is appointed for you to do.' 22 11 And when I could not see because of the brightness of that light, I was led by the hand by those who were with me, and came into Damascus.

22 12 "And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, well spoken of by all the Jews who lived there, 22 13 came to me, and standing by me said to me, 'Brother Saul, receive your sight.' And in that very hour I received my sight and saw him. 22 14 And he said, 'The God of our fathers appointed you to know his will, to see the Just One and to hear a voice from his mouth; 22 15 for you will be a witness for him to all men of what you have seen and heard. 22 16 And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on his name.' - Paul Sent to the Gentiles  Ac.22.17-21

22 17 "When I had returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance 22 18 and saw him saying to me, 'Make haste and get quickly out of Jerusalem, because they will not accept your testimony about me.' 22 19 And I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that in every synagogue I imprisoned and beat those who believed in you. 22 20 And when the blood of Stephen your witness was shed, I also was standing by and approving, and keeping the garments of those who killed him.' 22 21 And he said to me, 'Depart; for I will send you far away to the Gentiles.' " - Paul and the Roman Tribune  Ac.22.22-29

22 22 Up to this word they listened to him; then they lifted up their voices and said, "Away with such a fellow from the earth! For he ought not to live." 22 23 And as they cried out and waved their garments and threw dust into the air, 22 24 the tribune commanded him to be brought into the barracks, and ordered him to be examined by scourging, to find out why they shouted thus against him. 22 25 But when they had tied him up with the thongs, Paul said to the centurion who was standing by, "Is it lawful for you to scourge a man who is a Roman citizen, and uncondemned?" 22 26 When the centurion heard that, he went to the tribune and said to him, "What are you about to do? For this man is a Roman citizen." 22 27 So the tribune came and said to him, "Tell me, are you a Roman citizen?" And he said, "Yes." 22 28 The tribune answered, "I bought this citizenship for a large sum." Paul said, "But I was born a citizen." 22 29 So those who were about to examine him withdrew from him instantly; and the tribune also was afraid, for he realized that Paul was a Roman citizen and that he had bound him. - Paul before the Council  Ac.22.30-23.11

22 30 But on the morrow, desiring to know the real reason why the Jews accused him, he unbound him, and commanded the chief priests and all the council to meet, and he brought Paul down and set him before them.

23 1 And Paul, looking intently at the council, said, "Brethren, I have lived before God in all good conscience up to this day." 23 2 And the high priest Ananias commanded those who stood by him to strike him on the mouth. 23 3 Then Paul said to him, "God shall strike you, you whitewashed wall! Are you sitting to judge me according to the law, and yet contrary to the law you order me to be struck?" 23 4 Those who stood by said, "Would you revile God's high priest?" 23 5 [ Ex.22.28. ] And Paul said, "I did not know, brethren, that he was the high priest; for it is written, 'You shall not speak evil of a ruler of your people.' "

23 6 But when Paul perceived that one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Brethren, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees; with respect to the hope and the resurrection of the dead I am on trial." 23 7 And when he had said this, a dissension arose between the Pharisees and the Sadducees; and the assembly was divided. 23 8 For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, nor angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees acknowledge them all. 23 9 Then a great clamor arose; and some of the scribes of the Pharisees' party stood up and contended, "We find nothing wrong in this man. What if a spirit or an angel spoke to him?" 23 10 And when the dissension became violent, the tribune, afraid that Paul would be torn in pieces by them, commanded the soldiers to go down and take him by force from among them and bring him into the barracks.

23 11 The following night the Lord stood by him and said, "Take courage, for as you have testified about me at Jerusalem, so you must bear witness also at Rome." - The Plot against Paul's Life  Ac.23.12-22

23 12 When it was day, the Jews made a plot and bound themselves by an oath neither to eat nor drink till they had killed Paul. 23 13 There were more than forty who made this conspiracy. 23 14 And they went to the chief priests and elders, and said, "We have strictly bound ourselves by an oath to taste no food till we have killed Paul. 23 15 You therefore, along with the council, give notice now to the tribune to bring him down to you, as though you were going to determine his case more exactly. And we are ready to kill him before he comes near."

23 16 Now the son of Paul's sister heard of their ambush; so he went and entered the barracks and told Paul. 23 17 And Paul called one of the centurions and said, "Take this young man to the tribune; for he has something to tell him." 23 18 So he took him and brought him to the tribune and said, "Paul the prisoner called me and asked me to bring this young man to you, as he has something to say to you." 23 19 The tribune took him by the hand, and going aside asked him privately, "What is it that you have to tell me?" 23 20 And he said, "The Jews have agreed to ask you to bring Paul down to the council tomorrow, as though they were going to inquire somewhat more closely about him. 23 21 But do not yield to them; for more than forty of their men lie in ambush for him, having bound themselves by an oath neither to eat nor drink till they have killed him; and now they are ready, waiting for the promise from you." 23 22 So the tribune dismissed the young man, charging him, "Tell no one that you have informed me of this." - Paul Sent to Felix the Governor  Ac.23.23-35

23 23 Then he called two of the centurions and said, "At the third hour of the night get ready two hundred soldiers with seventy horsemen and two hundred spearmen to go as far as Caesarea. 23 24 Also provide mounts for Paul to ride, and bring him safely to Felix the governor." 23 25 And he wrote a letter to this effect:

23 26 "Claudius Lysias to his Excellency the governor Felix, greeting. 23 27 This man was seized by the Jews, and was about to be killed by them, when I came upon them with the soldiers and rescued him, having learned that he was a Roman citizen. 23 28 And desiring to know the charge on which they accused him, I brought him down to their council. 23 29 I found that he was accused about questions of their law, but charged with nothing deserving death or imprisonment. 23 30 And when it was disclosed to me that there would be a plot against the man, I sent him to you at once, ordering his accusers also to state before you what they have against him."

23 31 So the soldiers, according to their instructions, took Paul and brought him by night to Antipatris. 23 32 And on the morrow they returned to the barracks, leaving the horsemen to go on with him. 23 33 When they came to Caesarea and delivered the letter to the governor, they presented Paul also before him. 23 34 On reading the letter, he asked to what province he belonged. When he learned that he was from Cilicia 23 35 he said, "I will hear you when your accusers arrive." And he commanded him to be guarded in Herod's praetorium. - The Case against Paul  Ac.24.1-9

24 1 And after five days the high priest Ananias came down with some elders and a spokesman, one Tertullus. They laid before the governor their case against Paul; 24 2 and when he was called, Tertullus began to accuse him, saying:

"Since through you we enjoy much peace, and since by your provision, most excellent Felix, reforms are introduced on behalf of this nation, 24 3 in every way and everywhere we accept this with all gratitude. 24 4 But, to detain you no further, I beg you in your kindness to hear us briefly. 24 5 For we have found this man a pestilent fellow, an agitator among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. 24 6 He even tried to profane the temple, but we seized him. 24 7 Other ancient authorities add and we would have judged him according to out law. 7 But the chief captain Lysias came and with great violence took him out of our hands, 8 commanding his accusers to come before you. 24 8 By examining him yourself you will be able to learn from him about everything of which we accuse him." 24 9 The Jews also joined in the charge, affirming that all this was so. - Paul Defends Himself before Felix  Ac.24.10-23

24 10 And when the governor had motioned to him to speak, Paul replied:

"Realizing that for many years you have been judge over this nation, I cheerfully make my defence. 24 11 As you may ascertain, it is not more than twelve days since I went up to worship at Jerusalem; 24 12 and they did not find me disputing with anyone or stirring up a crowd, either in the temple or in the synagogues, or in the city. 24 13 Neither can they prove to you what they now bring up against me. 24 14 But this I admit to you, that according to the Way, which they call a sect, I worship the God of our fathers, believing everything laid down by the law or written in the prophets, 24 15 having a hope in God which these themselves accept, that there will be a resurrection of both the just and the unjust. 24 16 So I always take pains to have a clear conscience toward God and toward men. 24 17 Now after some years I came to bring to my nation alms and offerings. 24 18 As I was doing this, they found me purified in the temple, without any crowd or tumult. But some Jews from Asia - 24 19 they ought to be here before you and to make an accusation, if they have anything against me. 24 20 Or else let these men themselves say what wrongdoing they found when I stood before the council, 24 21 except this one thing which I cried out while standing among them, 'With respect to the resurrection of the dead I am on trial before you this day.' "

24 22 But Felix, having a rather accurate knowledge of the Way, put them off, saying, "When Lysias the tribune comes down, I will decide your case." 24 23 Then he gave orders to the centurion that he should be kept in custody but should have some liberty, and that none of his friends should be prevented from attending to his needs. - Paul Held in Custody  Ac.24.24-27

24 24 After some days Felix came with his wife Drusilla, who was a Jewess; and he sent for Paul and heard him speak upon faith in Christ Jesus. 24 25 And as he argued about justice and self-control and future judgment, Felix was alarmed and said, "Go away for the present; when I have an opportunity I will summon you." 24 26 At the same time he hoped that money would be given him by Paul. So he sent for him often and conversed with him. 24 27 But when two years had elapsed, Felix was succeeded by Porcius Festus; and desiring to do the Jews a favour, Felix left Paul in prison. - Paul Appeals to Caesar  Ac.25.1-12

25 1 Now when Festus had come into his province, after three days he went up to Jerusalem from Caesarea. 25 2 And the chief priests and the principal men of the Jews informed him against Paul; and they urged him, 25 3 asking as a favour to have the man sent to Jerusalem, planning an ambush to kill him on the way. 25 4 Festus replied that Paul was being kept at Caesarea, and that he himself intended to go there shortly. 25 5 "So," said he, "let the men of authority among you go down with me, and if there is anything wrong about the man, let them accuse him."

25 6 When he had stayed among them not more than eight or ten days, he went down to Caesarea; and the next day he took his seat on the tribunal and ordered Paul to be brought. 25 7 And when he had come, the Jews who had gone down from Jerusalem stood about him, bringing against him many serious charges which they could not prove. 25 8 Paul said in his defence, "Neither against the law of the Jews, nor against the temple, nor against Caesar have I offended at all." 25 9 But Festus, wishing to do the Jews a favour, said to Paul, "Do you wish to go up to Jerusalem, and there be tried on these charges before me?" 25 10 But Paul said, "I am standing before Caesar's tribunal, where I ought to be tried; to the Jews I have done no wrong, as you know very well. 25 11 If then I am a wrongdoer, and have committed anything for which I deserve to die, I do not seek to escape death; but if there is nothing in their charges against me, no one can give me up to them. I appeal to Caesar." 25 12 Then Festus, when he had conferred with his council, answered, "You have appealed to Caesar; to Caesar you shall go." - Paul Brought before Agrippa and Bernice  Ac.25.13-27

25 13 Now when some days had passed, Agrippa the king and Bernice arrived at Caesarea to welcome Festus. 25 14 And as they stayed there many days, Festus laid Paul's case before the king, saying, "There is a man left prisoner by Felix; 25 15 and when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the elders of the Jews gave information about him, asking for sentence against him. 25 16 I answered them that it was not the custom of the Romans to give up any one before the accused met the accusers face to face, and had opportunity to make his defence concerning the charge laid against him. 25 17 When therefore they came together here, I made no delay, but on the next day took my seat on the tribunal and ordered the man to be brought in. 25 18 When the accusers stood up, they brought no charge in his case of such evils as I supposed; 25 19 but they had certain points of dispute with him about their own superstition and about one Jesus, who was dead, but whom Paul asserted to be alive. 25 20 Being at a loss how to investigate these questions, I asked whether he wished to go to Jerusalem and be tried there regarding them. 25 21 But when Paul had appealed to be kept in custody for the decision of the emperor, I commanded him to be held until I could send him to Caesar." 25 22 And Agrippa said to Festus, "I should like to hear the man myself." "Tomorrow," said he, "you shall hear him."

25 23 So on the morrow Agrippa and Bernice came with great pomp, and they entered the audience hall with the military tribunes and the prominent men of the city. Then by command of Festus Paul was brought in. 25 24 And Festus said, "King Agrippa and all who are present with us, you see this man about whom the whole Jewish people petitioned me, both at Jerusalem and here, shouting that he ought not to live any longer. 25 25 But I found that he had done nothing deserving death; and as he himself appealed to the emperor, I decided to send him. 25 26 But I have nothing definite to write to my lord about him. Therefore I have brought him before you, and, especially before you, King Agrippa, that, after we have examined him, I may have something to write. 25 27 For it seems to me unreasonable, in sending a prisoner, not to indicate the charges against him." - Paul Defends Himself before Agrippa  Ac.26.1-11

26 1 Agrippa said to Paul, "You have permission to speak for yourself." Then Paul stretched out his hand and made his defence:

26 2 "I think myself fortunate that it is before you, King Agrippa, I am to make my defence today against all the accusations of the Jews, 26 3 because you are especially familiar with all customs and controversies of the Jews; therefore I beg you to listen to me patiently.

26 4 "My manner of life from my youth, spent from the beginning among my own nation and at Jerusalem, is known by all the Jews. 26 5 They have known for a long time, if they are willing to testify, that according to the strictest party of our religion I have lived as a Pharisee. 26 6 And now I stand here on trial for hope in the promise made by God to our fathers, 26 7 to which our twelve tribes hope to attain, as they earnestly worship night and day. And for this hope I am accused by Jews, O king! 26 8 Why is it thought incredible by any of you that God raises the dead?

26 9 "I myself was convinced that I ought to do many things in opposing the name of Jesus of Nazareth. 26 10 And I did so in Jerusalem; I not only shut up many of the saints in prison, by authority from the chief priests, but when they were put to death I cast my vote against them. 26 11 And I punished them often in all the synagogues and tried to make them blaspheme; and in raging fury against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities. - Paul Tells of His conversion  Ac.26.12-18- Ac.9.1-19, Ac.22.6-16 | KNSB Contents | notes


26 12 "Thus I journeyed to Damascus with the authority and commission of the chief priests. 26 13 At midday, O king, I saw on the way a light from heaven, brighter than the sun, shining round me and those who journeyed with me. 26 14 And when we had all fallen to the ground, I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? It hurts you to kick against the goads.' 26 15 And I said, 'Who are you, Lord?' And the Lord said, 'I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. 26 16 But rise and stand upon your feet; for I have appeared to you for this purpose, to appoint you to serve and bear witness to the things in which you have seen me and to those in which I will appear to you, 26 17 delivering you from the people and from the Gentiles - to whom I send you 26 18 to open their eyes, that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me.' - Paul's Testimony to Jews and Gentiles  Ac.26.19-23

26 19 "Wherefore, O King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision, 26 20 but declared first to those at Damascus, then at Jerusalem and throughout all the country of Judea, and also to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God and perform deeds worthy of their repentance. 26 21 For this reason the Jews seized me in the temple and tried to kill me. 26 22 To this day I have had the help that comes from God, and so I stand here testifying both to small and great, saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses said would come to pass: 26 23 that the Christ must suffer, and that, by being the first to rise from the dead, he would proclaim light both to the people and to the Gentiles." - Paul Appeals to Agrippa to Believe  Ac.26.24-32

26 24 And as he thus made his defence, Festus said with a loud voice, "Paul, you are mad; your great learning is turning you mad." 26 25 But Paul said, "I am not mad, most excellent Festus, but I am speaking the sober truth. 26 26 For the king knows about these things, and to him I speak freely; for I am persuaded that none of these things has escaped his notice, for this was not done in a corner. 26 27 King Agrippa, do you believe the prophets? I know that you believe." 26 28 And Agrippa said to Paul, "In a short time you think to make me a Christian!" 26 29 And Paul said, "Whether short or long, I would to God that not only you but also all who hear me this day might become such as I am - except for these chains."

26 30 Then the king rose, and the governor and Bernice and those who were sitting with them; 26 31 and when they had withdrawn, they said to one another, "This man is doing nothing to deserve death or imprisonment." 26 32 And Agrippa said to Festus, "This man could have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar." - Paul Sails for Rome  Ac.27.1-12

27 1 And when it was decided that we should sail for Italy, they delivered Paul and some other prisoners to a centurion of the Augustan Cohort, named Julius. 27 2 And embarking in a ship of Adramyttium, which was about to sail to the ports along the coast of Asia, we put to sea, accompanied by Aristarchus, a Macedonian from Thessalonica. 27 3 The next day we put in at Sidon; and Julius treated Paul kindly, and gave him leave to go to his friends and be cared for. 27 4 And putting to sea from there we sailed under the lee of Cyprus, because the winds were against us. 27 5 And when we had sailed across the sea which is off Cilicia and Pamphylia, we came to Myra in Lycia. 27 6 There the centurion found a ship of Alexandria sailing for Italy, and put us on board. 27 7 We sailed slowly for a number of days, and arrived with difficulty off Cnidus, and as the wind did not allow us to go on, we sailed under the lee of Crete off Salmone. 27 8 Coasting along it with difficulty, we came to a place called Fair Havens, near which was the city of Lasea.

27 9 As much time had been lost, and the voyage was already dangerous because the fast had already gone by, Paul advised them, 27 10 saying, "Sirs, I perceive that the voyage will be with injury and much loss, not only of the cargo and the ship, but also of our lives." 27 11 But the centurion paid more attention to the captain and to the owner of the ship than to what Paul said. 27 12 And because the harbour was not suitable to winter in, the majority advised to put to sea from there, on the chance that somehow they could reach Phoenix, a harbour of Crete, looking northeast and southeast, and winter there. - The Storm at Sea  Ac.27.13-38

27 13 And when the south wind blew gently, supposing that they had obtained their purpose, they weighed anchor and sailed along Crete, close inshore. 27 14 But soon a tempestuous wind, called the northeaster, struck down from the land; 27 15 and when the ship was caught and could not face the wind, we gave way to it and were driven. 27 16 And running under the lee of a small island called Cauda, we managed with difficulty to secure the boat; 27 17 after hoisting it up, they took measures to undergird the ship; then, fearing that they should run on the Syrtis, they lowered the gear, and so were driven. 27 18 As we were violently storm-tossed, they began next day to throw the cargo overboard; 27 19 and the third day they cast out with their own hands the tackle of the ship. 27 20 And when neither sun nor stars appeared for many a day, and no small tempest lay on us, all hope of our being saved was at last abandoned.

27 21 As they had been long without food, Paul then came forward among them and said, "Men, you should have listened to me, and should not have set sail from Crete and incurred this injury and loss. 27 22 I now bid you take heart; for there will be no loss of life among you, but only of the ship. 27 23 For this very night there stood by me an angel of the God to whom I belong and whom I worship, 27 24 and he said, 'Do not be afraid, Paul; you must stand before Caesar; and lo, God has granted you all those who sail with you.' 27 25 So take heart, men, for I have faith in God that it will be exactly as I have been told. 27 26 But we shall have to run on some island."

27 27 When the fourteenth night had come, as we were drifting across the sea of Adria, about midnight the sailors suspected that they were nearing land. 27 28 So they sounded and found twenty fathoms; a little farther on they sounded again and found fifteen fathoms. 27 29 And fearing that we might run on the rocks, they let out four anchors from the stern, and prayed for day to come. 27 30 And as the sailors were seeking to escape from the ship, and had lowered the boat into the sea, under pretence of laying out anchors from the bow, 27 31 Paul said to the centurion and the soldiers, "Unless these men stay in the ship, you cannot be saved." 27 32 Then the soldiers cut away the ropes of the boat, and let it go.

27 33 As day was about to dawn, Paul urged them all to take some food, saying, "Today is the fourteenth day that you have continued in suspense and without food, having taken nothing. 27 34 Therefore I urge you to take some food; it will give you strength, since not a hair is to perish from the head of any of you." 27 35 And when he had said this, he took bread, and giving thanks to God in the presence of all he broke it and began to eat. 27 36 Then they all were encouraged and ate some food themselves. 27 37 (We were in all two hundred and seventy-six persons in the ship.) 27 38 And when they had eaten enough, they lightened the ship, throwing out the wheat into the sea. - The Shipwreck  Ac.27.39-44

27 39 Now when it was day, they did not recognize the land, but they noticed a bay with a beach, on which they planned if possible to bring the ship ashore. 27 40 So they cast off the anchors and left them in the sea, at the same time loosening the ropes that tied the rudders; then hoisting the foresail to the wind they made for the beach. 27 41 But striking a shoal they ran the vessel aground; the bow stuck and remained immovable, and the stern was broken up by the surf. 27 42 The soldiers' plan was to kill the prisoners, lest any should swim away and escape; 27 43 but the centurion, wishing to save Paul, kept them from carrying out their purpose. He ordered those who could swim to throw themselves overboard first and make for the land, 27 44 and the rest on planks or on pieces of the ship. And so it was that all escaped to land. - Paul on the Island of Malta  Ac.28.1-10 (Melita, Malta)

28 1 After we had escaped, we then learned that the island was called Malta. 28 2 And the natives showed us unusual kindness, for they kindled a fire and welcomed us all, because it had begun to rain and was cold. 28 3 Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks and put them on the fire, when a viper came out because of the heat and fastened on his hand. 28 4 When the natives saw the creature hanging from his hand, they said to one another, "No doubt this man is a murderer. Though he has escaped from the sea, justice has not allowed him to live." 28 5 He, however, shook off the creature into the fire and suffered no harm. 28 6 They waited, expecting him to swell up or suddenly fall down dead; but when they had waited a long time and saw no misfortune come to him, they changed their minds and said that he was a god.

28 7 Now in the neighbourhood of that place were lands belonging to the chief man of the island, named Publius, who received us and entertained us hospitably for three days. 28 8 It happened that the father of Publius lay sick with fever and dysentery; and Paul visited him and prayed, and putting his hands on him healed him. 28 9 And when this had taken place, the rest of the people on the island who had diseases also came and were cured. 28 10 They presented many gifts to us; and when we sailed, they put on board whatever we needed. - Paul Arrives at Rome  Ac.28.11-16

28 11 After three months we set sail in a ship which had wintered in the island, a ship of Alexandria, with the Twin Brothers as figurehead. 28 12 Putting in at Syracuse, we stayed there for three days. 28 13 And from there we made a circuit and arrived at Rhegium; and after one day a south wind sprang up, and on the second day we came to Puteoli. 28 14 There we found brethren, and were invited to stay with them for seven days. And so we came to Rome. 28 15 And the brethren there, when they heard of us, came as far as the Forum of Appius and Three Taverns to meet us. On seeing them Paul thanked God and took courage. 28 16 And when we came into Rome, Paul was allowed to stay by himself, with the soldier that guarded him. - Paul Preaches in Rome  Ac.28.17-31 (Rome)

28 17 After three days he called together the local leaders of the Jews; and when they had gathered, he said to them, "Brethren, though I had done nothing against the people or the customs of our fathers, yet I was delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into 28 18 When they had examined me, they wished to set me at liberty, because there was no reason for the death penalty in my case. 28 19 But when the Jews objected, I was compelled to appeal to Caesar - though I had no charge to bring against my nation. 28 20 For this reason therefore I have asked to see you and speak with you, since it is because of the hope of Israel that I am bound with this chain." 28 21 And they said to him, "We have received no letters from Judea about you, and none of the brethren coming here has reported or spoken any evil about you. 28 22 But we desire to hear from you what your views are; for with regard to this sect we know that everywhere it is spoken against."

28 23 When they had appointed a day for him, they came to him at his lodging in great numbers. And he expounded the matter to them from morning till evening, testifying to the kingdom of God and trying to convince them about Jesus both from the law of Moses and 28 24 And some were convinced by what he said, while others disbelieved. 28 25 So, as they disagreed among themselves, they departed, after Paul had made one statement: "The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your fathers through Isaiah the prophet:

28 26 [ Is.6.9-10. ] 'Go to this people, and say,
You shall indeed hear but never understand,
and you shall indeed see but never perceive.
28 27 For this people's heart has grown dull,
and their ears are heavy of hearing,
and their eyes they have closed;
lest they should perceive with their eyes,
and hear with their ears,
and understand with their heart,
and turn for me to heal them.'
28 28 Let it be known to you then that this salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen." 28 29 Other ancient authorities add verse 29, And when he had said these words, the Jews departed, holding much dispute among themselves

28 30 And he lived there two whole years at his own expense, and welcomed all who came to him, 28 31 preaching the kingdom of God and teaching about the Lord Jesus Christ quite openly and unhindered. - Salutation  Ro.1.1-7 early 57ce (Rome)

1 1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 1 2 which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy scriptures, 1 3 the gospel concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh 1 4 and designated Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, 1 5 through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith for the sake of his name among all the nations, 1 6 including yourselves who are called to belong to Jesus Christ;

1 7 To all God's beloved in Rome, who are called to be saints:

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. - Paul's Desire to Visit Rome  Ro.1.8-15

1 8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed in all the world. 1 9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I mention you always in my prayers, 1 10 asking that somehow by God's will I may now at last succeed in coming to you. 1 11 For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift to strengthen you, 1 12 that is, that we may be mutually encouraged by each other's faith, both yours and mine. 1 13 I want you to know, brethren, that I have often intended to come to you (but thus far have been prevented), in order that I may reap some harvest among you as well as among the rest of the Gentiles. 1 14 I am under obligation both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish: 1 15 so I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome. - The Power of the Gospel  Ro.1.16-17

1 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel: it is the power of God for salvation to every one who has faith, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 1 17 [ Hab.2.4. ] For in it the righteousness of God is revealed through faith for faith; as it is written, "He who through faith is righteous shall live." - The Guilt of Mankind  Ro.1.18-32

1 18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of men who by their wickedness suppress the truth. 1 19 For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. 1 20 Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse; 1 21 for although they knew God they did not honour him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking and their senseless minds were darkened. 1 22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 1 23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man or birds or animals or reptiles.

1 24 Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonouring of their bodies among themselves, 1 25 because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever! Amen.

1 26 For this reason God gave them up to dishonourable passions. Their women exchanged natural relations for unnatural, 1 27 and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in their own persons the due penalty for their error.

1 28 And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God gave them up to a base mind and to improper conduct. 1 29 They were filled with all manner of wickedness, evil, covetousness, malice. Full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity, they are gossips, 1 30 slanderers, haters of God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 1 31 foolish, faithless, heartless, ruthless. 1 32 Though they know God's decree that those who do such things deserve to die, they not only do them but approve those who practice them. - The Right Judgment of God  Ro.2.1-16

2 1 Therefore you have no excuse, O man, whoever you are, when you judge another; for in passing judgement upon him you condemn yourself, because you, the judge, are doing the very same things. 2 2 We know that the judgment of God rightly falls upon those who do such things. 2 3 Do you suppose, O man, that when you judge those who do such things and yet do them yourself, you will escape the judgment of God? 2 4 Or do you presume upon the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience? Do you not know that God's kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? 2 5 But by your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God's righteous judgment will be revealed. 2 6 For he will render to every man according to his works: 2 7 to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, he will give eternal life; 2 8 but for those who are factious and do not obey the truth, but obey wickedness, there will be wrath and fury. 2 9 There will be tribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek, 2 10 but glory and honour and peace for everyone who does good, the Jew first and also the Greek. 2 11 For God shows no partiality.

2 12 All who have sinned without the law will also perish without the law, and all who have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2 13 For it is not the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law who will be justified. 2 14 When Gentiles who have not the law do by nature what the law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law. 2 15 They show that what the law requires is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness and their conflicting thoughts accuse or perhaps excuse them 2 16 on that day when, according to my gospel, God judges the secrets of men by Christ Jesus. - The Jews and the Law  Ro.2.17-3.8

2 17 But if you call yourself a Jew and rely upon the law and boast of your relation to God 2 18 and know his will and approve what is excellent, because you are instructed in the law, 2 19 and if you are sure that you are a guide to the blind, a light to those who are in darkness, 2 20 a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of children, having in the law the embodiment of knowledge and truth - 2 21 you then who teach others, will you not teach yourself? While you preach against stealing, do you steal? 2 22 You who say that one must not commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2 23 You who boast in the law, do you dishonour God by breaking the law? 2 24 [ Is.52.5, Eze.36.20. ] For, as it is written, "The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you."

2 25 Circumcision indeed is of value if you obey the law; but if you break the law, your circumcision becomes uncircumcision. 2 26 So, if a man who is uncircumcised keeps the precepts of the law, will not his uncircumcision be regarded as circumcision? 2 27 Then those who are physically uncircumcised but keep the law will condemn you who have the written code and circumcision but break the law. 2 28 For he is not a real Jew who is one outwardly, nor is true circumcision something external and physical. 2 29 He is a Jew who is one inwardly, and real circumcision is a matter of the heart, spiritual and not literal. His praise is not from men but from God.

3 1 Then what advantage has the Jew? Or what is the value of circumcision? 3 2 Much in every way. To begin with, the Jews are entrusted with the oracles of God. 3 3 What if some were unfaithful? Does their faithlessness nullify the faithfulness of God? 3 4 [ Ps.51.4. ] By no means! Let God be true though every man be false, as it is written,

"That you may be justified in your words,
and prevail when you are judged."

3 5 But if our wickedness serves to show the justice of God, what shall we say? That God is unjust to inflict wrath on us? (I speak in a human way.) 3 6 By no means! For then how could God judge the world? 3 7 But if through my falsehood God's truthfulness abounds to his glory, why am I still being condemned as a sinner? 3 8 And why not do evil that good may come? - as some people slanderously charge us with saying. Their condemnation is just. - There is None Righteous  Ro.3.9-20

3 9 What then? Are we Jews any better off? No, not at all; for I have already charged that all men, both Jews and Greeks, are under the power of sin, 3 10 [ Ps.14.1-3, Ps.53.1, Ec.7.20. ] as it is written:

"None is righteous, no, not one;
3 11 no one understands, no one seeks for God.
3 12 All have turned aside, together they have gone wrong;
no one does good, not even one."

3 13 [ Ps.5.9, Ps.140.3. ] "Their throat is an open grave,
they use their tongues to deceive."
"The venom of asps is under their lips."
3 14 [ Ps.10.7. ] "Their mouth is full of curses and bitterness."

3 15 [ Is.59.7-8. ] "Their feet are swift to shed blood,
3 16 in their paths are ruin and misery,
3 17 and the way of peace they do not know."
3 18 [ Ps.36.1. ] "There is no fear of God before their eyes."

3 19 Now we know that whatever the law says it speaks to those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be stopped, and the whole world may be held accountable to God. 3 20 [ Ps.143.2. ] For no human being will be justified in his sight by works of the law, since through the law comes knowledge of sin. - Righteousness through Faith  Ro.3.21-31

3 21 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from law, although the law and the prophets bear witness to it, 3 22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction; 3 23 since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 3 24 they are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, 3 25 whom God put forward as an expiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God's righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins; 3 26 it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies him who has faith in Jesus.

3 27 Then what becomes of our boasting? It is excluded. On what principle? On the principle of works? No, but on the principle of faith. 3 28 For we hold that a man is justified by faith apart from works of law. 3 29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also, 3 30 since God is one; and he will justify the circumcised on the ground of their faith and the uncircumcised through their faith. 3 31 Do we then overthrow the law by this faith? By no means! On the contrary, we uphold the law. - The Example of Abraham  Ro.4.1-12

4 1 What then shall we say about Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh? 4 2 For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God. 4 3 [ Gn.15.6. ] For what does the scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness." 4 4 Now to one who works, his wages are not reckoned as a gift but as his due. 4 5 And to one who does not work but trusts him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness. 4 6 So also David pronounces a blessing upon the man to whom God reckons righteousness apart from works:

4 7 [ Ps.32.1-2. ] "Blessed are those whose iniquities are forgiven,
and whose sins are covered;
4 8 blessed is the man against whom the Lord will not reckon his sin."

4 9 [ Gn.15.6. ] Is this blessing pronounced only upon the circumcised, or also upon the uncircumcised? We say that faith was reckoned to Abraham as righteousness. 4 10 How then was it reckoned to him? Was it before or after he had been circumcised? It was not after, but before he was circumcised. 4 11 He received circumcision as a sign or seal of the righteousness which he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised and who thus have righteousness reckoned to them, 4 12 and likewise the father of the circumcised who are not merely circumcised but also follow the example of the faith which our father Abraham had before he was circumcised. - The Promise Realised through Faith  Ro.4.13-25

4 13 The promise to Abraham and his descendants, that they should inherit the world, did not come through the law but through the righteousness of faith. 4 14 If it is the adherents of the law who are to be the heirs, faith is null and the promise is void. 4 15 For the law brings wrath, but where there is no law there is no transgression.

4 16 That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his descendants - not only to the adherents of the law but also to those who share the faith of Abraham, for he is the father of us all, 4 17 [ Gn.17.5, Gn.15.5. ] as it is written, "I have made you the father of many nations"- in the presence of the God in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead and calls into existence the things that do not exist. 4 18 [ Is.48.13. ] In hope he believed against hope, that he should become the father of many nations; as he had been told, "So shall your descendants be." 4 19 He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body, which was as good as dead because he was about a hundred years old, or when he considered the barrenness of Sarah's womb. 4 20 No distrust made him waver concerning the promise of God, but he grew strong in his faith as he gave glory to God, 4 21 fully convinced that God was able to do what he had promised. 4 22 [ Gn.15.6. ] That is why his faith was "reckoned to him as righteousness." 4 23 But the words, "it was reckoned to him," were written not for his sake alone, 4 24 but for ours also. It will be reckoned to us who believe in him that raised from the dead Jesus our Lord, 4 25 who was put to death for our trespasses and raised for our justification. - Results of Justification  Ro.5.1-11

5 1 Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. 5 2 Through him we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand, and we rejoice in our hope of sharing the glory of God. 5 3 More than that, we rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, 5 4 and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, 5 5 and hope does not disappoint us, because God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us.

5 6 While we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 5 7 Why, one will hardly die for a righteous man - though perhaps for a good man one will dare even to die. 5 8 But God shows his love for us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us. 5 9 Since, therefore, we are now justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God. 5 10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, now that we are reconciled, shall we be saved by his life. 5 11 Not only so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received our reconciliation. - Adam and Christ  Ro.5.12-21

5 12 Therefore as sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned - 5 13 sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. 5 14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sins were not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.

5 15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man's trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift in the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. 5 16 And the free gift is not like the effect of that one man's sin. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brings justification. 5 17 If, because of one man's trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ.

5 18 Then as one man's trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one man's act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men. 5 19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by one man's obedience many will be made righteous. 5 20 Law came in, to increase the trespass; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, 5 21 so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. - Dead to Sin but Alive in Christ  Ro.6.1-14

6 1 What shall we say then? Are we to continue in sin that grace may abound? 6 2 By no means! How can we who died to sin still live in it? 6 3 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6 4 We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.

6 5 For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. 6 6 We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the sinful body might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin. 6 7 For he who has died is freed from sin. 6 8 But if we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him. 6 9 For we know that Christ being raised from the dead will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. 6 10 The death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. 6 11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.

6 12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal bodies, to make you obey their passions. 6 13 Do not yield your members to sin as instruments of wickedness, but yield yourselves to God as men who have been brought from death to life, and your members to God as instruments of righteousness. 6 14 For sin will have no dominion over you, since you are not under law but under grace. - Slaves of Righteousness  Ro.6.15-23

6 15 What then? Are we to sin because we are not under law but under grace? By no means! 6 16 Do you not know that if you yield yourselves to any one as obedient slaves, you are slaves of the one whom you obey, either of sin, which leads to death, or of obedience, which leads to righteousness? 6 17 But thanks be to God, that you who were once slaves of sin have become obedient from the heart to the standard of teaching to which you were committed, 6 18 and, having been set free from sin, have become slaves of righteousness. 6 19 I am speaking in human terms, because of your natural limitations. For just as you once yielded your members to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now yield your members to righteousness for sanctification.

6 20 When you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6 21 But then what return did you get from the things of which you are now ashamed? The end of those things is death. 6 22 But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves of God, the return you get is sanctification and its end, eternal life. 6 23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. - An Analogy from Marriage  Ro.7.1-6

7 1 Do you not know, brethren - for I am speaking to those who know the law - that the law is binding on a person only during his life? 7 2 Thus a married woman is bound by law to her husband as long as he lives; but if her husband dies she is discharged from the law concerning the husband. 7 3 Accordingly, she will be called an adulteress if she lives with another man while her husband is alive. But if her husband dies she is free from that law, and if she marries another man she is not an adulteress.

7 4 Likewise, my brethren, you have died to the law through the body of Christ, so that you may belong to another, to him who has been raised from the dead in order that we may bear fruit for God. 7 5 While we were living in the flesh, our sinful passions, aroused by the law, were at work in our members to bear fruit for death. 7 6 But now we are discharged from the law, dead to that which held us captive, so that we serve not under the old written code but in the new life of the Spirit. - The Problem of Indwelling Sin  Ro.7.7-25

7 7 What then shall we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet, if it had not been for the law, I should not have known sin. I should not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, "You shall not covet." 7 8 But sin, finding opportunity in the commandment, wrought in me all kinds of covetousness. Apart from the law sin lies dead. 7 9 I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin revived and I died; 7 10 the very commandment which promised life proved to be death to me. 7 11 For sin, finding opportunity in the commandment, deceived me and by it killed me. 7 12 So the law is holy, and the commandment is holy and just and good. 7 13 Did that which is good, then, bring death to me? By no means! It was sin, working death in me through what is good, in order that sin might be shown to be sin, and through the commandment might become sinful beyond measure. 7 14 We know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, sold under sin. 7 15 I do not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate. 7 16 Now if I do what I do not want, I agree that the law is good. 7 17 So then it is no longer I that do it, but sin which dwells within me. 7 18 For I know that nothing good dwells within me, that is, in my flesh. I can will what is right, but I cannot do it. 7 19 For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I do. 7 20 Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I that do it, but sin which dwells within me.

7 21 So I find it to be a law that when I want to do right, evil lies close at hand. 7 22 For I delight in the law of God, in my inmost self, 7 23 but I see in my members another law at war with the law of my mind and making me captive to the law of sin which dwells in my members. 7 24 Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death? 7 25 Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, I of myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sin. - Life in the Spirit  Ro.8.1-17

8 1 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. 8 2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set me free from the law of sin and death. 8 3 For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do: sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, 8 4 in order that the just requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 8 5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit. 8 6 To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace. 8 7 For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God; it does not submit to God's law, indeed it cannot; 8 8 and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

8 9 But you are not in the flesh, you are in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. 8 10 But if Christ is in you, although your bodies are dead because of sin, your spirits are alive because of righteousness. 8 11 If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit which dwells in you.

8 12 So then, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh - 8 13 for if you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live. 8 14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. 8 15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the spirit of sonship. When we cry, "Abba! Father!" 8 16 it is the Spirit himself bearing witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 8 17 and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him. - The Glory That is to be  Ro.8.18-30

8 18 I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us. 8 19 For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God; 8 20 for the creation was subjected to futility, not of its own will but by the will of him who subjected it in hope; 8 21 because the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and obtain the glorious liberty of the children of God. 8 22 We know that the whole creation has been groaning in travail together until now; 8 23 and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. 8 24 For in this hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for what he sees? 8 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait for it with patience.

8 26 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with sighs too deep for words. 8 27 And he who searches the hearts of men knows what is the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God. 8 28 We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him, who are called according to his purpose. 8 29 For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren. 8 30 And those whom he predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also justified; and those whom he justified he also glorified. - God's Love  Ro.8.31-39

8 31 What then shall we say to this? If God is for us, who is against us? 8 32 He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, will he not also give us all things with him? 8 33 Who shall bring any charge against God's elect? It is God who justifies; 8 34 who is to condemn? Is it Christ Jesus, who died, yes, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us? 8 35 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 8 36 [ Ps.44.22. ] As it is written,

"For your sake we are being killed all the day long;
we are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered."
8 37 No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. 8 38 For I am sure that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, 8 39 nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord. - God's Election of Israel  Ro.9.1-18

9 1 I am speaking the truth in Christ, I am not lying; my conscience bears me witness in the Holy Spirit, 9 2 that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. 9 3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen by race. 9 4 They are Israelites, and to them belong the sonship, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises; 9 5 to them belong the patriarchs, and of their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ. God who is over all be blessed for ever. Amen.

9 6 But it is not as though the word of God had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel, 9 7 [ Gn.21.12. ] and not all are children of Abraham because they are his descendants; but "Through Isaac shall your descendants be named." 9 8 This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are reckoned as descendants. 9 9 [ Gn.18.10-14. ] For this is what the promise said, "About this time I will return and Sarah shall have a son." 9 10 And not only so, but also when Rebecca had conceived children by one man, our forefather Isaac, 9 11 though they were not yet born and had done nothing either good or bad, in order that God's purpose of election might continue, not because of works but because of his call, 9 12 [ Gn.25.23. ] she was told, "The elder will serve the younger." 9 13 [ Mal.1.2-3. ] As it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated."

9 14 What shall we say then? Is there injustice on God's part? By no means! 9 15 [ Ex.33.19. ] For he says to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion." 9 16 So it depends not upon man's will or exertion, but upon God's mercy. 9 17 [ Ex.9.16. ] For the scripture says to Pharaoh, "I have raised you up for the very purpose of showing my power in you, so that my name may be proclaimed in all the earth." 9 18 So then he has mercy upon whomever he wills, and he hardens the heart of whomever he wills. - God's Wrath and Mercy  Ro.9.19-29

9 19 You will say to me then, "Why does he still find fault? For who can resist his will?" 9 20 [ Is.29.16, Is.45.9. ] But who are you, a man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, "Why have you made me thus?" 9 21 [ Jr.18.6. ] Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for beauty and another for menial use? 9 22 What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience the vessels of wrath made for destruction, 9 23 in order to make known the riches of his glory for the vessels of mercy, which he has prepared beforehand for glory, 9 24 even us whom he has called, not from the Jews only but also from the Gentiles? 9 25 [ Hs.2.23. ] As indeed he says in Hosea,

"Those who were not my people
I will call 'my people,'
and her who was not beloved
I will call 'my beloved.' "
9 26 [ Hs.1.10. ] "And in the very place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,'
they will be called 'sons of the living God.' "
9 27 [ Is.10.22-23. ] And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel:
"Though the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea,
only a remnant of them will be saved;
9 28 for the Lord will execute his sentence upon the earth with rigor and dispatch."
9 29 [ Is.1.9. ] And as Isaiah predicted,