THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT . Edited by Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce M Metzger, Allen Wikgren. United Bible Societies London Copyright 1966. - This Edition prepared for katapi by Paul Ingram 2004.

Introduction (Part 3)

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The Punctuation Apparatus

As was noted above, the punctuation apparatus includes some six hundred passages in which difference of punctuation seems to be particularly significant for interpretation of the text. Each successive problem of punctuation is marked by an italic superscript letter in the text, which is repeated at each point where a related set of punctuation alternatives may be employed.

Several acute difficulties are involved in comparing punctuation in different Greek editions and modern-language translations:
(1) different editions of the Greek text employ punctuation symbols with different values (one editor, for example, may tend to use colons where another will generally use commas);
(2) the value of a mark of punctuation must be analyzed not only in terms of an editor's usual practice, but also in relation to other marks of punctuation within the context;
(3) systems of punctuation employed in editions of the Greek New Testament and in modern-language translations do not completely correspond; and
(4) translators into modern languages differ even more radically than do editors of the Greek New Testament in the variety of punctuation marks used and the diversity of values associated with them. Accordingly, it has not been possible to set up a system whereby specific punctuation marks can be compared on a purely formal basis. Rather, it has been necessary to evaluate the symbols and to determine their function and "weight" in each set of meaningful variants.

Punctuation marks have therefore been analyzed and evaluated in terms of two major functions:
(1) the indication of significant breaks in structure, for example, between paragraphs, between complete sentences, between principal clauses within sentences, and between related phrases, and
(2) the identification of the nature of a grammatical construction, e. g. a statement, a question, or a command.

Since, however, the primary function of punctuation marks is to indicate breaks or transition, the different marks of punctuation have been classified as follows: paragraph, major  "break", minor  "break" and none. Other types of breaks are identified by dashes, parentheses, or dots showing ellipses. Terminal punctuation marks, normally indicating some type of major break, serve to indicate differences between question (whether indicated by a question mark or an exclamation mark), statement and command.

Special problems are involved with respect to ὅτι, which may introduce indirect discourse, direct discourse, a causal construction, a question, or may serve some other function in the sentence. In this edition, when on introduces indirect discourse no comma precedes, and neither on nor the word following is capitalized. When ὅτι is used to introduce direct discourse, no mark of punctuation precedes or follows it and the next word begins with a capital letter. When ὅτι introduces a causal construction, a comma may precede; it is always capitalized when it is causal at the beginning of direct discourse.

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The major sets of alternatives given in the punctuation apparatus are as follows:

paragraph, major a paragraph break in contrast with a full sentence break.
major, minor, none a major break (often equivalent to a period or full stop, a colon, or a semicolon) in contrast with a minor break (usually indicated by a comma), and in further contrast with no punctuation.
question, statement, command the contrast between question and non-question is usually clearly indicated in Greek texts, but in certain contexts the additional contrast between statement and command may be made explicit only in translation.
exclamation a category, not marked in Greek but often used in translations to render rhetorical questions (which may be marked in Greek as questions) or emphatic statements (which are marked in Greek only by a period or full stop).
dash, parens dashes and parenthesis marks indicate breaks in structure.
A dash is generally employed to indicate a break in the syntax of the sentence, while parenthesis marks are used to enclose explanatory or supplementary material.
ellipsis words in an incomplete sentence which need to be supplied, indicated by three dots.
direct (or recitative), indirect, causal, interrogative different uses of ὅτι , though in some instances it is difficult to interpret the function of on since an editor may have pre­ferred to leave it ambiguous (see page xxxvi).
different text the underlying text is so different that no correspondence can be indicated.

As a rule, alternative forms of punctuation are given only when they are represented by some Greek edition or modern translation, but in a few instances additional possibilities have been noted for which no authority is cited.

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The following symbols and abbreviations have also been used with the punctuation apparatus:

? indicates that citation of a particular edition or translation is doubtful, since the evidence does not clearly support one or another alternative.
(  ) parenthesis marks show minor differences of detail in punctuation, while indicating that the authority supports in general the punctuation for which it is cited.
ed a different edition of a Greek text or a translation which does not agree with other editions at a given point.
mg a marginal reading in one of the translations.
mg1, mg2 successive alternatives in the margin of a translation.

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The following editions of the Greek New Testament and translations into modern languages have been cited in the punctuation apparatus:

TR

Textus Receptus (Oxford, 1873). In cases of differences of verse division, the editions of Stephanus (1551, 1559) and others, were consulted.
WH Westcott and Uort (1881).
Bov Bover (4th edition, 1959). In some cases where the type had become illegible, the first edition (1943) was consulted.
Nes Nestle-Aland (25th edition, 1963).
BF2 British and Foreign Bible Society edition of the Nestle Greek text (2nd edition. 1958).
AV Authorized or King James Version. The New Testament Parallel Edition, AV and RSV (Nelson, 1961?) and the New Testament Octapla, edited by Luther A. Weigle (Nelson, 1962) were used. The Octapla includes the 1873 edition of the AV, edited by F. H. A. Scrivener.
RV Revised or English Revised Version (1881).
ASV American Standard Version (1901).
RSV Revised Standard Version (1946, and subsequent editions).
NEB The New English Bible, New Testament (1961).
TT The New Testament: A Translation for Translators (1966).
Zür Die Heilige Schrift (Zurich. 1942).
Luth Das Neue Testament, nach der Übersetzung Martin Luthers, Revidierter Text (1956).
Jer Le Nouveau Testament ... de 1'Ecole Biblique de Jérusalem (1958).
Seg Le Nouveau Testament, Traduction de Louis Segond (Nouvelle Revision, 1962).
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the cross-reference system

The cross-references, given at the bottom of the page with the principal Greek words involved, include the following categories:
(1) quotations from Biblical and non-Biblical books;
(2) definite allusions, where it is assumed that the writer had in mind a specific passage of Scripture; and
(3) literary and other parallels. References to parallel passages are given immediately below the section headings, rather than in the cross-references. When verse numbers in English editions differ from the Hebrew Old Testament, the numbering of the RSV is followed.

The following abbreviations are used in the reference system:

Abbreviations - Old Testament

Gn

Genesis

Sol

Song of Solomon
Ex Exodus Is Isaiah
Lv Leviticus Jr Jeremiah
Nu Numbers Lm Lamentation
Dt Deuteronomy Eze Ezekiel
Jos Joshua Dn Daniel
Jdg Judges Ho Hosea
Ru Ruth Jl Joel
1, 2Sm 1, 2 Samuel Am Amos
1, 2Kgs 1, 2 Kings Ob Obadiah
1, 2Chr 1, 2 Chronicles Jon Jonah
Ezr Ezra Mic Micah
Ne Nehemiah Na Nahum
Est Esther Hab Habakkuk
Job Job Zph Zephaniah
Ps Psalms Hg Haggai
Pr Proverbs Zch Zechariah

Ec

Ecclesiastes Mal  Malachi

Abbreviations - New Testament

Mt Matthew 1, 2Th 1, 2 Thessalonians
Mk Mark 1, 2Tm 1, 2 Timothy
Lk Luke Tt Titus
Jn John Phm Philemon
Ac Acts He Hebrews
Ro Romans Jas James
1, 2Cor 1, 2 Corinthians 1, 2Pe 1, 2 Peter
Ga Galatians 1, 2, 3Jn 1, 2, 3 John
Eph Ephesians Jd Jude
Php Philippians Re Revelation
Col Colossians    

Abbreviations – Apocrypha

Bar Baruch

PsSol

Psalms of Solomon
En Enoch Sir Sirach
1, 2Esd 1, 2 Esdras Sus Susanna
Jdth Judith Tob Tobit
1, 2, 3, 4Mace 1, 2, 3, 4 Maccabees Wsd Wisdom

Other writings cited:

Aratus Ascension of Isaiah Assumption of Moses
Epimenides Ps-Epimenides Menander

The following abbreviations are also used in the reference system:

MT

the Masoretic Text, where it differs from the Greek.
LXX the Septuagint, where it diners from the Hebrew.
Theodotion Theodotion's text of the Greek Old Testament.

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master list of symbols and abbreviations

Symbols & abbreviations

{ } enclose a letter A, B, C, D which indicates the relative degree of certainty for the reading adopted in the text.
[ ] enclose words which are regarded as having dubious textual validity.
[[ ]] enclose passages which are regarded as later additions to the text, but which are of evident antiquity and importance.
( ) indicate that a witness or edition supports the reading for which it is cited, but with minor differences.
  the reading of the original hand of the manu­script.
? indicates that a witness is probably in support of a reading, but that there is some doubt. The question mark is also used when an ancient version, owing to the grammatical structure of the language, is cited as supporting two or more different Greek readings. In the punctua­tion apparatus it indicates that citation of a particular edition or translation is doubtful, since the evidence does not clearly support one or another alternative.
½, 2/3, 5/7 etc the second figure of the fraction indicates the number of times a particular passage is cited by a Church Father, and the first specifies the number of times the passage is cited in the particular form of the variant with which the fraction is placed.
2, 3, 4 superscript numerals used to indicate the successive correctors of a manuscript.
a.b.c, d, e, successive correctors of manuscripts א D (Bezae Cantabrigiensis) and D (Claromontaiuis].
a, b, c, manuscripts of the writings of Theophylact.
a, bav, c, p manuscripts of the commentary of Andrew of Caesarea on Revelation.
a indicates that a manuscript in the Gregory-Aland list contains the Acts of the Apostles, and sometimes the Catholic or General Epistles. With lectionaries, a indicates that the manuscript contains lessons from the Acts and the Epistles.
Acc. to.
...arab, ...arm
according to.  
...Arabic version. ...Armenian version.
ASV American Standard Version (1901).
AV Authorized or King James Version (1611).
BF2 Η ΚΑΙΝΗ ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗ (B.F.B.S., 2nd ed., 1958).
Bov Bover, Novi Testamenti Biblia Graeca et Latina (4th ed., 1959).
Byz the reading of the majority of Byzantine manuscripts.
Byz.pt a part of the Byzantine manuscript tradition.
C indicates that a manuscript contains all or part of the Catholic or General Epistles.
c corrector of a manuscript. causal indicates the causal function of on in a given passage.
cj conjecture.
comm the commentary section of a manuscript where the reading differs from the accompanying Greek text. Also used to designate the New Testament text cited in the commentary of a Church Father, when the citation differs from the accompanying New Testament text.
cop.ach Coptic version, Achmimic dialect.
cop.ach2 Coptic version, Sub-Achmimic dialect.
cop.bo Coptic version, Bohairic dialect.
cop.fay Coptic version, Fayyumic dialect.
cop.sa Coptic version, Sahidic dialect.
dash indicates a break in the syntax of a sentence.
Diatessaron.a, e, etc (see pages xxxiv. xxxv).
different text used in the punctuation apparatus when the text of an edition or version is so different that no correspondence can be indicated with the other editions and versions cited.
direct indicates that ὅτι introduces direct discourse.
e indicates that a manuscript in the Gregory-Aland list contains all or part of the Gospels.
ed edition (s) of a Church Father. In the punctuation apparatus it indicates that an edition does not agree with other editions.
ellipsis words in an incomplete sentence which need to be supplied, indicated by three dots.
eth.pp the Pell Platt edition of the Ethiopic version (B.F.B.S. 1826).
eth.ro the Rome edition of the Ethiopic version (1548-1549).
exclamation not marked in Greek texts, but often used in translations to render rhetorical questions (which may be marked in Greek as questions) or emphatic statements (which are marked in Greek only by a period or full stop).
f1 "Family 1", a group of Greek manuscripts first described by Lake.
f13 ''Family 13", a group of Greek manuscripts first described by Ferrar.
geo Georgian version.
geo.1, 2 manuscripts representing the two major Georgian traditions.
geo.a, b manuscripts which form the basis of geo.2 .
goth Gothic version.
gr the Greek text of a bilingual manuscript (D. E, G) where it differs from the corresponding text in the accompanying language. Also used with Church Fathers to distinguish the Greek text of a Church Father from a version in another language.
indirect indicates that on introduces indirect discourse.
interrogative indicates that ὅτι introduces an interrogative construction.
it with various superscript letters indicates manuscripts of the Itala or Old Latin (see p. xxvi).
Jer Le Nouveau Testament ... de 1'Ecole Biblique de Jerusalem (1958).
Lat the Latin version of a Greek Church Father.
L a lectionary, identified by the superscript number following it.
Lm a lectionary in its Menologion (see p. xxv).
Ls a lectionary in its Synaxarion (see p. xxv).
Lpt an individual lectionary which contains a passage two or more times with readings differing from each other, hence listed as supporting a reading in "part".
Lect the reading of the majority of lectionaries in the Synaxarion and in the Menologion, when these agree (see p. xxv).
Lect.m the Menologion readings when these differ from the Synaxarion or appear only in the Menologion (see p. xxv).
Luth Das Neue Testament, nach der Übersetzung Martin Luthers, Revidierter Text (1956).
LXX The Septuagint or Greek translation of the Old Testament.
m a lectionary in its Menologion (see p. xxv).
major a major break or transition in the punctuation  of a given passage.
minor a minor break or transition in the punctuation of a given passage.
mg textual evidence contained in the margin of a manuscript. In the punctuation apparatus, mg indicates a marginal reading of a modern translation.
mg.1, 2 successive alternatives in the margin of a translation.
ms, mss manuscript (s) of an ancient version, or of the writings of a Church Father, when different from the edited text.
NEB The New English Bible, New Testament (1961).
Nes Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece (25th ed., 1963).
none no break or transition in the punctuation of a given passage.
nub Nubian version.
Old German Old High German version.
p indicates that a manuscript in the Gregory-Aland list contains all or part of the Epistles of Paul.
p1, etc a papyrus, identified by the superscript number following it.
paragraph a paragraph break or transition in contrast with a full sentence break.
parens parenthesis marks are used to enclose explanatory or supplementary material in the Greek text. They are used with manuscripts, ancient versions or modern translations, to indicate similarity but not identity of readings.
pers Persian version.
Provençal Provencal version.
r indicates that a manuscript in the Gregory-Aland list contains all or part of the text of Revelation.
RSV Revised Standard Version of the New Testa­ment (1946).
RV Revised or English Revised Version of the New Testament (1881).
Ls a lectionary in its Synaxarion (see p. xxv).
Seg Segond, Le Nouveau Testament (1962).
sic an abnormality exactly reproduced from the original.
slav Slavonic version.
supp a portion of a manuscript supplied by a later hand where the original is missing.
syr.c Curetonian Syriac version.
syr.h Harclean Syriac version.
syr.hgr a Greek marginal reading in the Harclean Syriac version.
syr.h.mgr a marginal reading in the Harclean Syriac version.
syr.h with *  asterisks in the Harclean Syriac text indicating a different reading.
syr.p Peshitta Syriac version.
syr.pal Palestinian Syriac version.
syr.s Sinaitic Syriac version.
Theodotion Theodotion's text of the Greek Old Testament.
TR Textus Receptus (Oxford, 1873).
TT The New Testament: A Translation for Translators (1966).
Txt the text of a manuscript of the New Testament or of a Church Father when it differs from another reading given in the commentary section which accompanies the text.
vg Vulgate version.
vg.cl the Clementine edition of the Vulgate when it differs from the Wordsworth-White edition.
vg.ww Wordsworth-White edition of the Vulgate when it differs from the Clementine edition.
vg.ww with [ ] the Wordsworth-White edition prints the word(s) in square brackets to indicate dubious textual validity.
vid indicates apparent support for a given reading in a manuscript whose state of preservation makes complete verification impossible.
WH Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881).
Zür Die Heilige Schrift (Zurich, 1942).
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